Posts from the “Expressive” Category

“KLAUS” Technique

Based on IAN FAILES’s article of ‘Klaus’ technique [1], I feel the tool SPA studio uses for “Klaus” gives a lot controls to artist to surpass 2D hand-drawn limitations. The control is created from artists’ lens. Because of that, it cultivates the artistic creation process.

Lighting makes the 2D drawing 3D like. This is because applying lighting is based on physically-based lighting – how Pixar does lighting for their films. The artist would specify areas for different types of light in the 2D drawing, the tool then automatically apply 3D lighting to the specified area.

Following are some thoughts of the article:

The quest to do something different in 2D

? Lack of technical details of limitation of 2D hand drawn animation.

It looks like the limitation is intuitive artistic control.

A production solution

Seems the solution is a tracking system to hand-drawn lines. I guess the tracking system helps convert the snapshot of the film – hand-drawn lines – to the final film. The tracking system makes artistic details consistent for finalizing artistic details for a static frame and moving artistic details between frames.

The process before lighting

  • Artist: storyboard with Storyboard Pro from Toon Boom
  • Artist: remove lines based on artistic sense

The lighting breakthrough

Lighting (automatic, or theoretically could be to artist): break down the lighting of a scene in a convincing way, the same way that concept artists do every day.

Texturing: level of grain

Comp: texturing to corresponding lighting



Note of An Image Synthesizer

Ken Perlin. An Image Synthesizer.

The paper proposes the initial algorithm of Perlin Noise, and a few variations of the algorithm to simulate a variety of randomnesses in nature.

The technique produces organic randomness appears in nature. It proposes an algorithm to produce random look, which is made uniformly distributed by a narrow bandpass limit in frequency. This statistic character of the randomness maintains unchanged with varying domains. Because the algorithm satisfies statistical invariances under rotation and translation.

The most beautiful part of the paper is the description of Perlin Noise: an organized array, when associated with the gradient of the organized array and an augmentation value, both are stochastic, is transformed to a stochastic value which is used together with the gradient to interpolate areas between the stochastic value of the current organized array and the ones of other organized arrays. NOTE: the augmentation arguments for all organized arrays determines the generated stochastic values. The distribution of the augmentation arguments of all organized arrays determines the uniformness of the generated stochastic values.

Note of Simulating and Analyzing Jackson Pollock’s Painting

Sangwon Lee, Sven C. Olsen, Bruce Gooch. Simulating and Analysing Jackson Pollock’s Painting

The paper devises a system to allow user create Pollock-like painting with a painting material simulator which allows user paint without using real material, and with real-time feedback of fractal properties of the ongoing painting, which gives user an awareness of the similarity between the fractal dimension of the ongoing painting and those of Pollock’s painting. That means, the user is capable of creating Pollock-like painting by keeping the similarity high.

The paper points out that fractal dimension is incapable of distinguishing fractal and nonfactual images, and proposes an new metric, uniformity, to alleviate the limitation. Uniformity indicates the similarity between the fractal dimension of a subregion and those of the entire painting. But, in what way does uniformity distinguish fractal and nonfactual images better than fractal dimension does?

Notes of Empathic Painting: Interactive Stylization Through Observed Emotional State

Maria Shugrina, Margrit Betke, John Collomoss. Empathic Painting: Interactive stylization through observed emotional state

Emotion is majorly expressed from a combination of color and stroke. The paper analyzes color, stroke denotation style, and region turbulence to transform them to emotions. It can be found in Section 4.2 Rendering Parameters:

Express Emotion in Region Turbulence

  • Section 4.2.1 Region Turbulence

Express Emotion in Color

  • Section 4.2.2 Tonal Variation, and

Express Emotion in Stroke Denotation Style

  • Section 4.2.3 Stroke Denotation Style

Notes of The Art of Journey

Characters are segmented to make it possible to animate.

Scary faces comes from a question that “what if the character you control is on the dark side?”

Principles of expressing emotions using landscape composition:

  • Openness, happiness: if the fog is pushed away from the player, the view becomes clear, which makes player feel happier; on the other hand, if the fog is close to the player, the blurry view makes the player feel scary
  • Blue sky is used to award the player at the end of the game. Green skies were used earlier as a random alternative of the blue sky, from what the artist said
  • Dreamy and high quality light is used to make the player feel magical at the end of the game

Book link: